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Genital Prolapse

Description

  • Genital prolapse is an extrusion or herniation of genital mass through the vagina.
  • This creates discomfort in walking, as well as causing a feeling of pressure, and sometimes a loss of urine.
  • There are three types of female genital hernias: cystocele, rectocele, and enterocele. A cystocele occurs where the bladder wall pushes into the vagina (also known as a dropped bladder). A rectocele occurs when the rectum pushes into the vagina. An enterocele occurs when the small intestine pushes into the vagina. Additionally, an enterocele may be associated with prolapse of the uterus (the uterus pushes down into the vagina). A woman can experience more than one type simultaneously. Women who have had multiple children are at higher risk for developing any or all of these conditions.
  • There are three degrees of uterine prolapse. In first-degree prolapse, the cervix remains within the vagina. In second-degree prolapse, the cervix is at or near the introitus. Finally, in third-degree prolapse (procidentia uteri), most or all the uterus lies outside the vaginal opening. Uterine prolapse is always accompanied by some degree of vaginal-wall prolapse.

Causes

  • Obstetrical trauma (multiparity, infant weight)
  • Congenital weakness of pelvis
  • Decreased estrogen levels (e.g., menopause)
  • Increased intra-abdominal pressure (e.g., obesity, chronic lung disease, asthma)

Symptoms

  • Pelvic pain, heaviness or pressure (experienced in more than 90 per cent of cases)
  • Protrusion of tissue (experienced in more than 90 per cent of cases)
  • Difficult or painful intercourse
  • Lower back pain
  • Nausea, constipation
  • Difficulty in walking
  • Difficulty to urinate, increase in the frequency of urination and incontinence
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